Barley is an annual plant, monocotyledonous, belonging to the family of Gramines and of great importance in human and animal feeding. It has a fasciculate root, the stem is erect and little branched, hollow and herbaceous. Inflorescence in spike, with three spikelets in each knot of the rachis and spikelets with a flower each, is protected by bracts called glumes. Leaves have parallel veins, sheathed and with auricles. The fruit is a grain called caryopsis.
It is tolerant to drought and low temperatures, adapts to a wide variety of soils but prefers well drained and light, with good content in organic matter. It is very tolerant to salinity and alkaline soils. It is not tolerant to acidic soils and the optimum pH range for its cultivation is between 6 and 8.5.
The main fungi diseases of barley are: Puccinia striiformis, (Puccinia graminis and Puccinia recondita.
Scientific name: Hordeum vulgare L.
Septoria nodorum, Ustilago nudae, Ustilago hordei, tilletia caries, Drechslera gaminea raben), Oculimacula sp, Gaeumanomyces graminis, Rhizoctonia sp, Pyrenophora teres, Septoria tritici, Puccionia triticina, Piccinia striiformis and Fusarium graminearum.
The main pests of barley are: Zabrus tenebrioides, Agrotes sp, Heterodera avenae, Dreoceras sp, Sitobion avenae, Mayetiola destructor, Oulema melanopa, Haplothrips tritici, Cnephasia pumicana and Anguina sp.
The main important viral disease that attack the barley crop is BYDV.