Lettuce is an annual vegetable, belonging to the family Asteraceae (Composite), being its scientific name Lactuca sativa L. It is a plant that has a pivotal root and little branching, with very short internodes, leaves arranged In rosettes and in some varied, they are pressed against each other forming a more or less compact core. It has a yellow flower and the inflorescence in clusters or corymbos. Its fruit is an achenio provided with vilano that facilitates its dispersion.
The seed of the lettuce is characterized by latency, that is, it takes a while to germinate and this latency can last until the months after harvesting, so it must do treatments with infrared (red light), heat treatments, oxygenation A sunset In cold before high humidity for a few days to get them out of this state.
From the agronomic point of view, there are three phases in lettuce cultivation:
- Stage of rosette formation of leaves
- Phase of formation of the core more or less compact
- Phase of reproduction or emission of floral stem
Lettuce is a crop that develops well in temperate-humid climates and in soils with a frank or sandy loam texture, which have a good content of organic matter, being its optimum crop pH around 6,8 and 7, 4 Units. The lettuce does not tolerate temperatures below -6ºC, producing vegetation in the plant, being the optimum temperature in the seedling phase 15ºC during the day and 10ºC at night, with relative humidities between 60-80%.
For seedling preparation, it is necessary to place 2 seeds in each socket and when the plant has about 5-7 true leaves, transplant on the ground after nude, in separate furrows of 0.5 m and 0.3 m Of Separation between plants, with a density of 8 pl · m-2. At 8-10 days after transplantation, we will proceed to the replenishment of marras, which are the plants that have not withstood the stress of the transplant and have withered.
By way of guidance, an average subscriber found might be as follows:
- Manure: 15-20 t / ha
- N: 60-120 UF / ha (4 contributions, one in the background)
- P2O5: 30-50 UF / ha
- K 2 O: 100-150 UF / ha
Phosphorus and potassium all in background
The lettuce requires a good water supply, the soil must have a good drainage for its sensitive to watering, is very demanding in potassium, sensitive to the lack of molybdenum and moderately demanding in boron
A very common physiopathy in lettuce cultivation is the premature rise of the flower, so avoiding high temperatures in the pre-shelter phase. The main pests of lettuce are the trips (Frankliniella occidentalis), miners (Liriomiza trifoli), nematodes (Meloidogyne), pink lettuce aphid (Narsonovia ribisnigri). The main diseases of lettuce are: Lettuce brain caused by the fungus Bremia lactucae, rot of the neck caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Rot of seedlings caused by Pythium ultimum, and pod of the foot caused by Rhizoctonia solani.
It is recommended the application of BIONA PRORAÍZ which, thanks to its high content of amino acids and polysaccharides, stimulates the growth and development of the lettuce root system, so that during the transplant the plant can quickly recover and incorporate the nutrients Necessary for its development