7 March, 2017

TOMATO

Taxonomy

The tomato is an annual and herbaceous plant, native to South America its part of the Solanaceae family. It has a pivoting root, their leaves are composite, serrated and aromatic. The flowers are hermaphrodite and the inflorescence is in corimbo. The fruit is a spherical berry with diverse forms since round, flat, piriform or oval.

The tomato plant is sensitive to frost. Their optimal temperature of development is between 20-24ºC. It prefers deep soils, well drained and with the pH around 7 units. It´s a plant very resistant to salinity.

 

Pests

The main pests of tomato are: Spodoptera littoralis, Plusia chalcytes, Phytometra o plusia gamma, Tuta absoluta, Heliothis armígera, Agrotis segetum, Agrotis ypsilon, Agrotis nigrum, Macrosyphym euphorbiae, Macrosyphum solanifolii, Aphis sp, and Frankliniella occidentalis.

Scientific name: Lycopersicum esculentum L.

Nezara viridula, Macrolophus sp, Tetranychus cinnabarinnus, Lycopersici masee, Heterodera, Meloidogyne and Tylenchus.

Diseases

The main diseases of tomato are: Phytophthora infestans, Alternaría dauci f sp. Solani, Botrytis cinerea, Leveilulla taurica and  Cladosporium fulvum.

Rhizoctonia solani, Phytophthora nicotianae, Phytophthora capsici, Fusarium oxysporum, Pyrenochacta lycopersici, Phytophthora parasítica, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani, Alternaría solani, Pseudomonas solanacearum,   orynebacterium michiganense, Xanthomonas campestrisPseudomonas syringae and Pseudomonas corrugata.

Viral diseases

The main viral diseases of tomato are: T0MV,  CMV, PVY, TSWV, TYLCV and Stolbur.